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Chemistry Nobel Prizes – Nobel Chemistry winners list 1901-2016

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Chemistry Nobel Prizes – Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 107 times to 172 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2016. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980. This means that a total of 171 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Chemistry Nobel Prizes

 

              The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 107 times to 172 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2015. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980. This means that a total of 171 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

 

Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

Type – Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

Category – International     

First Awarded – 1901

Last Awarded – 2015

Official Website – http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/


Laureates

Year

Laureate

Country

Description

2015

Tomas LindahlSweden / United Kingdom“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”
Paul ModrichUnited States
Aziz SancarTurkey / United States

2014

Eric BetzigUnited States“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”
Stefan W. HellGermany
William E. MoernerUnited States

2013

Martin KarplusUnited States / Austria“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”
Michael LevittUnited States / United Kingdom
Arieh WarshelUnited States / Israel

2012

Robert J. LefkowitzUnited States“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”
Brian K. KobilkaUnited States

2011

Dan ShechtmanIsrael“for the discovery of quasicrystals”

2010

Richard F. HeckUnited States“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”
Ei-ichi NegishiJapan
Akira SuzukiJapan

2009

Venkatraman RamakrishnanUnited States“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”
Thomas A. SteitzUnited States
Ada E. YonathIsrael

2008

Osamu ShimomuraJapan“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”
Martin ChalfieUnited States
Roger Y. TsienUnited States

2007

Gerhard ErtlGermany“for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

2006

Roger D. KornbergUnited States“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

2005

Yves ChauvinFrance“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”
Robert H. GrubbsUnited States
Richard R. SchrockUnited States

2004

Aaron CiechanoverIsrael“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”
Avram HershkoIsrael
Irwin RoseUnited States

2003

Peter AgreUnited States“for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes” […..]”for the discovery of water channels”
Roderick MacKinnonUnited States“for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes” […..]”for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

2002

John B. FennUnited States“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules” [….]”for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”
Koichi TanakaJapan
Kurt WüthrichSwitzerland“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules” [….]”for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

2001

William S. KnowlesUnited States“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”
Ryoji NoyoriJapan
K. Barry SharplessUnited States“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

2000

Alan J. HeegerUnited States“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”
Alan G. MacDiarmidUnited States / New Zealand
Hideki ShirakawaJapan

1999

Ahmed H. ZewailEgypt / United States“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

1998

Walter KohnUnited States“for his development of the density-functional theory”
John A. PopleUnited Kingdom“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

1997

Paul D. BoyerUnited States“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”
John E. WalkerUnited Kingdom
Jens C. SkouDenmark“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

1996

Robert F. Curl Jr.United States“for their discovery of fullerenes”
Sir Harold W. KrotoUnited Kingdom
Richard E. SmalleyUnited States

1995

Paul J. CrutzenNetherlands“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”
Mario J. MolinaMexico
F. Sherwood RowlandUnited States

1994

George A. OlahUnited States / Hungary“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

1993

Kary B. MullisUnited States“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry” [….] “for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”
Michael SmithCanada“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry” [….]”for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

1992

Rudolph A. MarcusUnited States / Canada“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

1991

Richard R. ErnstSwitzerland“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

1990

Elias James CoreyUnited States“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

1989

Sidney AltmanCanada / United States“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”
Thomas R. CechUnited States

1988

Johann DeisenhoferFederal Republic of Germany“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”
Robert HuberFederal Republic of Germany
Hartmut MichelFederal Republic of Germany

1987

Donald J. CramUnited States“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”
Jean-Marie LehnFrance
Charles J. PedersenUnited States

1986

Dudley R. HerschbachUnited States“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”
Yuan T. LeeUnited States / Taiwan
John C. PolanyiCanada / Hungary

1985

Herbert A. HauptmanUnited States“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”
Jerome KarleUnited States

1984

Robert Bruce MerrifieldUnited States“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

1983

Henry TaubeUnited States“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

1982

Aaron KlugUnited Kingdom“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

1981

Kenichi FukuiJapan“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”
Roald HoffmannUnited States

1980

Paul BergUnited States“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”
Walter GilbertUnited States“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”
Frederick SangerUnited Kingdom

1979

Herbert C. BrownUnited States“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”
Georg WittigFederal Republic of Germany

1978

Peter D. MitchellUnited Kingdom“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

1977

Ilya PrigogineBelgium“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

1976

William N. LipscombUnited States“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

1975

John Warcup CornforthAustralia / United Kingdom“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”
Vladimir PrelogYugoslavia / Switzerland“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

1974

Paul J. FloryUnited States“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

1973

Ernst Otto FischerFederal Republic of Germany“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”
Geoffrey WilkinsonUnited Kingdom

1972

Christian B. AnfinsenUnited States“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”
Stanford MooreUnited States“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”
William H. SteinUnited States

1971

Gerhard HerzbergCanada / Germany“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

1970

Luis F. LeloirArgentina“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

1969

Derek H. R. BartonUnited Kingdom“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”
Odd HasselNorway

1968

Lars OnsagerUnited States“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

1967

Manfred EigenFederal Republic of Germany“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”
Ronald George Wreyford NorrishUnited Kingdom
George PorterUnited Kingdom

1966

Robert S. MullikenUnited States“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

1965

Robert Burns WoodwardUnited States“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

1964

Dorothy Crowfoot HodgkinUnited Kingdom“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

1963

Karl ZieglerFederal Republic of Germany“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”
Giulio NattaItaly

1962

Max Ferdinand PerutzUnited Kingdom“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”
John Cowdery KendrewUnited Kingdom

1961

Melvin CalvinUnited States“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

1960

Willard Frank LibbyUnited States“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

1959

Jaroslav HeyrovskyCzechoslovakia“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

1958

Frederick SangerUnited Kingdom“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

1957

Lord (Alexander R.) ToddUnited Kingdom“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

1956

Sir Cyril Norman HinshelwoodUnited Kingdom“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”
Nikolay Nikolaevich SemenovSoviet Union

1955

Vincent du VigneaudUnited States“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

1954

Linus Carl PaulingUnited States“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

1953

Hermann StaudingerFederal Republic of Germany“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

1952

Archer John Porter MartinUnited Kingdom“for their invention of partition chromatography”
Richard Laurence Millington SyngeUnited Kingdom

1951

Edwin Mattison McMillanUnited States“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”
Glenn Theodore SeaborgUnited States

1950

Otto Paul Hermann DielsFederal Republic of Germany“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”
Kurt AlderFederal Republic of Germany

1949

William Francis GiauqueUnited States“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

1948

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin TiseliusSweden“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

1947

Sir Robert RobinsoUnited Kingdom“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

1946

James Batcheller SumnerUnited States“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”
John Howard NorthropUnited States“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”
Wendell Meredith StanleyUnited States

1945

Artturi Ilmari VirtanenFinland“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

1944

Otto HahnGermany“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

1943

George de HevesyGermany“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1941

1940

1939

Adolf Friedrich Johann ButenandtGermany“for his work on sex hormones”
Leopold RuzickSwitzerland“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

1938

Richard KuhnGermany“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

1937

Walter Norman HaworthUnited Kingdom“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”
Paul KarrerSwitzerland“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”

1936

Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus DebyeNetherlands“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

1935

Frédéric JoliotFrance“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”
Irène Joliot-CurieFrance

1934

Harold Clayton UreyUnited States“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”

1933

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1932

Irving LangmuirUnited States“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

1931

Carl BoschGermany“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”
Friedrich BergiusGermany

1930

Hans FischerGermany“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

1929

Arthur HardenUnited Kingdom“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-ChelpinSweden

1928

Adolf Otto Reinhold WindausGermany“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

1927

Heinrich Otto WielandGermany“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

1926

The (Theodor) SvedbergSweden“for his work on disperse systems”

1925

Richard Adolf ZsigmondyGermany / Hungary“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1923

Fritz PreglAustria“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

1922

Francis William AstonUnited Kingdom“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

1921

Frederick SoddyUnited Kingdom“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

1920

Walther Hermann NernstGermany“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

1919

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1918

Fritz HaberGermany“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1916

1915

Richard Martin WillstätterGermany“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

1914

Theodore William RichardsUnited States“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

1913

Alfred WernerSwitzerland“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

1912

Victor GrignardFrance“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”
Paul SabatierFrance“for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”

1911

Marie Curie, née SklodowskaPoland / France“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

1910

Otto WallachGermany“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

1909

Wilhelm OstwaldGermany“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

1908

Ernest RutherfordUnited Kingdom / New Zealand“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

1907

Eduard BuchnerGermany“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

1906

Henri MoissanFrance“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

1905

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von BaeyerGermany“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

1904

Sir William RamsayUnited Kingdom“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

1903

Svante August ArrheniusSweden“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

1902

Hermann Emil FischerGermany“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

1901

Jacobus Henricus van’t HoffNetherlands“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”
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