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Chemistry Nobel Prizes – Nobel Chemistry winners list 1901-2016


Chemistry Nobel Prizes – Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 107 times to 172 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2016. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980. This means that a total of 171 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Chemistry Nobel Prizes


              The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 107 times to 172 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2015. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980. This means that a total of 171 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.


Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

Type – Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

Category – International     

First Awarded – 1901

Last Awarded – 2015

Official Website –







Tomas LindahlSweden / United Kingdom“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”
Paul ModrichUnited States
Aziz SancarTurkey / United States


Eric BetzigUnited States“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”
Stefan W. HellGermany
William E. MoernerUnited States


Martin KarplusUnited States / Austria“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”
Michael LevittUnited States / United Kingdom
Arieh WarshelUnited States / Israel


Robert J. LefkowitzUnited States“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”
Brian K. KobilkaUnited States


Dan ShechtmanIsrael“for the discovery of quasicrystals”


Richard F. HeckUnited States“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”
Ei-ichi NegishiJapan
Akira SuzukiJapan


Venkatraman RamakrishnanUnited States“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”
Thomas A. SteitzUnited States
Ada E. YonathIsrael


Osamu ShimomuraJapan“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”
Martin ChalfieUnited States
Roger Y. TsienUnited States


Gerhard ErtlGermany“for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”


Roger D. KornbergUnited States“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”


Yves ChauvinFrance“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”
Robert H. GrubbsUnited States
Richard R. SchrockUnited States


Aaron CiechanoverIsrael“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”
Avram HershkoIsrael
Irwin RoseUnited States


Peter AgreUnited States“for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes” […..]”for the discovery of water channels”
Roderick MacKinnonUnited States“for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes” […..]”for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”


John B. FennUnited States“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules” [….]”for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”
Koichi TanakaJapan
Kurt WüthrichSwitzerland“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules” [….]”for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”


William S. KnowlesUnited States“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”
Ryoji NoyoriJapan
K. Barry SharplessUnited States“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”


Alan J. HeegerUnited States“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”
Alan G. MacDiarmidUnited States / New Zealand
Hideki ShirakawaJapan


Ahmed H. ZewailEgypt / United States“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”


Walter KohnUnited States“for his development of the density-functional theory”
John A. PopleUnited Kingdom“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”


Paul D. BoyerUnited States“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”
John E. WalkerUnited Kingdom
Jens C. SkouDenmark“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”


Robert F. Curl Jr.United States“for their discovery of fullerenes”
Sir Harold W. KrotoUnited Kingdom
Richard E. SmalleyUnited States


Paul J. CrutzenNetherlands“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”
Mario J. MolinaMexico
F. Sherwood RowlandUnited States


George A. OlahUnited States / Hungary“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”


Kary B. MullisUnited States“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry” [….] “for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”
Michael SmithCanada“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry” [….]”for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”


Rudolph A. MarcusUnited States / Canada“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”


Richard R. ErnstSwitzerland“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”


Elias James CoreyUnited States“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”


Sidney AltmanCanada / United States“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”
Thomas R. CechUnited States


Johann DeisenhoferFederal Republic of Germany“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”
Robert HuberFederal Republic of Germany
Hartmut MichelFederal Republic of Germany


Donald J. CramUnited States“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”
Jean-Marie LehnFrance
Charles J. PedersenUnited States


Dudley R. HerschbachUnited States“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”
Yuan T. LeeUnited States / Taiwan
John C. PolanyiCanada / Hungary


Herbert A. HauptmanUnited States“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”
Jerome KarleUnited States


Robert Bruce MerrifieldUnited States“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”


Henry TaubeUnited States“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”


Aaron KlugUnited Kingdom“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”


Kenichi FukuiJapan“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”
Roald HoffmannUnited States


Paul BergUnited States“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”
Walter GilbertUnited States“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”
Frederick SangerUnited Kingdom


Herbert C. BrownUnited States“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”
Georg WittigFederal Republic of Germany


Peter D. MitchellUnited Kingdom“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”


Ilya PrigogineBelgium“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”


William N. LipscombUnited States“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”


John Warcup CornforthAustralia / United Kingdom“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”
Vladimir PrelogYugoslavia / Switzerland“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”


Paul J. FloryUnited States“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”


Ernst Otto FischerFederal Republic of Germany“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”
Geoffrey WilkinsonUnited Kingdom


Christian B. AnfinsenUnited States“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”
Stanford MooreUnited States“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”
William H. SteinUnited States


Gerhard HerzbergCanada / Germany“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”


Luis F. LeloirArgentina“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”


Derek H. R. BartonUnited Kingdom“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”
Odd HasselNorway


Lars OnsagerUnited States“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”


Manfred EigenFederal Republic of Germany“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”
Ronald George Wreyford NorrishUnited Kingdom
George PorterUnited Kingdom


Robert S. MullikenUnited States“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”


Robert Burns WoodwardUnited States“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”


Dorothy Crowfoot HodgkinUnited Kingdom“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”


Karl ZieglerFederal Republic of Germany“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”
Giulio NattaItaly


Max Ferdinand PerutzUnited Kingdom“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”
John Cowdery KendrewUnited Kingdom


Melvin CalvinUnited States“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”


Willard Frank LibbyUnited States“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”


Jaroslav HeyrovskyCzechoslovakia“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”


Frederick SangerUnited Kingdom“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”


Lord (Alexander R.) ToddUnited Kingdom“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”


Sir Cyril Norman HinshelwoodUnited Kingdom“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”
Nikolay Nikolaevich SemenovSoviet Union


Vincent du VigneaudUnited States“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”


Linus Carl PaulingUnited States“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”


Hermann StaudingerFederal Republic of Germany“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”


Archer John Porter MartinUnited Kingdom“for their invention of partition chromatography”
Richard Laurence Millington SyngeUnited Kingdom


Edwin Mattison McMillanUnited States“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”
Glenn Theodore SeaborgUnited States


Otto Paul Hermann DielsFederal Republic of Germany“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”
Kurt AlderFederal Republic of Germany


William Francis GiauqueUnited States“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”


Arne Wilhelm Kaurin TiseliusSweden“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”


Sir Robert RobinsoUnited Kingdom“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”


James Batcheller SumnerUnited States“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”
John Howard NorthropUnited States“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”
Wendell Meredith StanleyUnited States


Artturi Ilmari VirtanenFinland“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”


Otto HahnGermany“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”


George de HevesyGermany“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.




Adolf Friedrich Johann ButenandtGermany“for his work on sex hormones”
Leopold RuzickSwitzerland“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”


Richard KuhnGermany“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”


Walter Norman HaworthUnited Kingdom“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”
Paul KarrerSwitzerland“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”


Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus DebyeNetherlands“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”


Frédéric JoliotFrance“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”
Irène Joliot-CurieFrance


Harold Clayton UreyUnited States“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.


Irving LangmuirUnited States“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”


Carl BoschGermany“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”
Friedrich BergiusGermany


Hans FischerGermany“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”


Arthur HardenUnited Kingdom“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-ChelpinSweden


Adolf Otto Reinhold WindausGermany“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”


Heinrich Otto WielandGermany“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”


The (Theodor) SvedbergSweden“for his work on disperse systems”


Richard Adolf ZsigmondyGermany / Hungary“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.


Fritz PreglAustria“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”


Francis William AstonUnited Kingdom“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”


Frederick SoddyUnited Kingdom“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”


Walther Hermann NernstGermany“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.


Fritz HaberGermany“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.



Richard Martin WillstätterGermany“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”


Theodore William RichardsUnited States“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”


Alfred WernerSwitzerland“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”


Victor GrignardFrance“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”
Paul SabatierFrance“for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”


Marie Curie, née SklodowskaPoland / France“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”


Otto WallachGermany“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”


Wilhelm OstwaldGermany“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”


Ernest RutherfordUnited Kingdom / New Zealand“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”


Eduard BuchnerGermany“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”


Henri MoissanFrance“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”


Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von BaeyerGermany“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”


Sir William RamsayUnited Kingdom“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”


Svante August ArrheniusSweden“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”


Hermann Emil FischerGermany“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”


Jacobus Henricus van’t HoffNetherlands“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”


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