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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – list of Nobel Laureates

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All Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded 106 times to 210 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2015.  

Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine

 

             The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded 106 times to 210 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2015.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine

Type –  Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine 

Category – International

First Awarded- 1901

Last Awarded- 2015

Official Website-  http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates

Nobel Prize Laureates

Year

Laureate

Country

Description

2015

William C. Campbell

Ireland / United States

“for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

Satoshi Ōmura

Japan

Tu Youyou

China

“for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

2014

John O’Keefe

United States / United Kingdom

“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in brain”

May-Britt Moser

Norway

Edvard I. Moser

Norway

2013

James E. Rothman

United States

“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

Randy W. Schekman

United States

Thomas C. Südhof

United States

2012

Shinya Yamanaka

Japan

“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

Sir John B. Gurdon

United Kingdom

2011

Bruce A. Beutler

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

Jules A. Hoffmann

France

Ralph M. Steinman

United States/Canada

“for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

2010

Robert G. Edwards

United Kingdom

“for the development of in vitro fertilization”

2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn

United States / Australia

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

Carol W. Greider

United States

Jack W. Szostak

United States

2008

Harald zur Hausen

Germany

“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

France

“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

Luc Montagnier

France

2007

Mario R. Capecchi

United States

“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

Sir Martin J. Evans

United Kingdom

Oliver Smithies

United States

2006

Andrew Z. Fire

United States

“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

Craig C. Mello

United States

2005

Barry J. Marshall

Australia

“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

J. Robin Warren

Australia

2004

Richard Axel

United States

“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

Linda B. Buck

United States

2003

Paul C. Lauterbur

United States

“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

Sir Peter Mansfield

United Kingdom

2002

Sydney Brenne

South Africa

“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

H. Robert Horvitz

United States

John E. Sulston

United Kingdom

2001

Leland H. Hartwell

United States

“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

Tim Hunt

United Kingdom

Sir Paul M. Nurse

United Kingdom

2000

Arvid Carlsson

Sweden

“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

Paul Greengard

United States

Eric R. Kandel

United States

1999

Günter Blobel

Germany/United States

“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

1998

Robert F. Furchgott

United States

“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

Louis J. Ignarro

United States

Ferid Murad

United States

1997

Stanley B. Prusiner

United States

“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

1996

Peter C. Doherty

Australia

“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Switzerland

1995

Edward B. Lewis

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

Federal Republic of Germany

Eric F. Wieschaus

United States

1994

Alfred G. Gilman

United States

“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

Martin Rodbell

United States

1993

Richard J. Roberts

United Kingdom

“for their discoveries of split genes”

Phillip A. Sharp

United States

1992

Edmond H. Fischer

Switzerland United States

“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

Edwin G. Krebs

United States

1991

Erwin Neher

Federal Republic of Germany

“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

Bert Sakmann

Federal Republic of Germany

1990

Joseph E. Murray

United States

“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

E. Donnall Thomas

United States

1989

J. Michael Bishop

United States

“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

Harold E. Varmus

United States

1988

Sir James W. Black

United Kingdom

“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

Gertrude B. Elion

United States

George H. Hitchings

United States

1987

Susumu Tonegawa

Japan

“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

1986

Stanley Cohen

United States

“for their discoveries of growth factors”

Rita Levi-Montalcini

Italy

1985

Michael S. Brown

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

Joseph L. Goldstein

United States

1984

Niels K. Jerne

Denmark

“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

Georges J.F. Köhler

Federal Republic of Germany

César Milstein

Argentina United Kingdom

1983

Barbara McClintock

United States

“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

1982

Sune K. Bergström

Sweden

“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

Bengt I. Samuelsson

Sweden

John R. Vane

United Kingdom

1981

Roger W. Sperry

United States

“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel

Canada

“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

Torsten N. Wiesel

Sweden

1980

Baruj Benacerraf

Venezuela

“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

Jean Dausset

France

George D. Snell

United States

1979

Allan M. Cormack

South Africa

“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

Godfrey N. Hounsfield

United Kingdom

1978

Werner Arber

Switzerland

“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

Daniel Nathans

United States

Hamilton O. Smith

United States

1977

Roger Guillemin

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Andrew V. Schally

United States

Rosalyn Yalow

United States

“for the development of radio immunoassays of peptide hormones”

1976

Baruch S. Blumberg

United States

“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

D. Carleton Gajdusek

United States

1975

David Baltimore

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

Renato Dulbecco

Italy United States

Howard Martin Temin

United States

1974

Albert Claude

Belgium

“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

Christian de Duve

Belgium

George E. Palade

Romania

1973

Karl von Frisch

Federal Republic of Germany

“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

Konrad Lorenz

Austria

Nikolaas Tinbergen

United Kingdom

1972

Gerald M. Edelman

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

Rodney R. Porter

United Kingdom

1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

United States

“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

1970

Sir Bernard Katz

United Kingdom

“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

Ulf von Euler

Sweden

Julius Axelrod

United States

1969

Max Delbrück

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

Alfred D. Hershey

United States

Salvador E. Luria

Italy United States

1968

Robert W. Holley

United States

 

“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

Har Gobind Khorana

India

Marshall W. Nirenberg

United States

1967

Ragnar Granit

Finland/Sweden

“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

Haldan Keffer Hartline

United States

George Wald

United States

1966

Peyton Rous

United States

“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins

United States

“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

1965

François Jacob

France

“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

André Lwoff

France

Jacques Monod

France

1964

Konrad Bloch

United States

“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

Feodor Lynen

Federal Republic of Germany

1963

Sir John Carew Eccles

Australia

“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

United Kingdom

Andrew Fielding Huxley

United Kingdom

1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick

United Kingdom

“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

James Dewey Watson

United States

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

New Zealand United Kingdom

1961

Georg von Békésy

United States

“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

Australia

“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

Peter Brian Medawar

Brazil United Kingdom

1959

Severo Ochoa

Spain United States

“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

Arthur Kornberg

United States

1958

George Wells Beadle

United States

“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Edward Lawrie Tatum

United States

Joshua Lederberg

United States

“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

1957

Daniel Bovet

Italy

“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

1956

André Frédéric Cournand

United States

“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

Werner Forssmann

Federal Republic of Germany

Dickinson W. Richards

United States

1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell

Sweden

“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

1954

John Franklin Enders

United States

“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

Thomas Huckle Weller

United States

Frederick Chapman Robbins

United States

1953

Hans Adolf Krebs

United Kingdom

“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann

United States

“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

1952

Selman Abraham Waksman

United States

“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

1951

Max Theiler

South Africa

“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

1950

Edward Calvin Kendall

United States

“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

Tadeus Reichstein

Switzerland/Poland

Philip Showalter Hench

United States

1949

Walter Rudolf Hess

Switzerland

“for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

Portugal

“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

1948

Paul Hermann Müller

Switzerland

“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori

United States

“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

United States

Bernardo Alberto Houssay

Argentina

“for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

1946

Hermann Joseph Muller

United States

“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

1945

Sir Alexander Fleming

United Kingdom

“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

Ernst Boris Chain

United Kingdom

Sir Howard Walter Florey

Australia

1944

Joseph Erlanger

United States

“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

Herbert Spencer Gasser

United States

1943

Henrik Carl Peter Dam

Denmark

“for his discovery of vitamin K”

Edward Adelbert Doisy

United States

“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1941

1940

1939

Gerhard Domagk

Germany

“for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans

Begium

“for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

Hungary

“for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale

United Kingdom

“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

Otto Loewi

Austria

1935

Hans Spemann

Germany

“for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

1934

George Hoyt Whipple

United States

“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

George Richards Minot

United States

William Parry Murphy

United States

1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan

United States

“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington

United Kingdom

“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

Edgar Douglas Adrian

United Kingdom

1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg

Germany

“for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

1930

Karl Landsteiner

Austria

“for his discovery of human blood groups”

1929

Christiaan Eijkman

The Netherlands

“for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

United Kingdom

“for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

1928

Charles Jules Henri Nicolle

France

“for his work on typhus”

1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

Austria

“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

Denmark

“for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1924

Willem Einthoven

The Netherlands

“for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

1923

Frederick Grant Banting

Canada

“for the discovery of insulin”

John James Rickard Macleod

Canada

1922

Archibald Vivian Hill

United Kingdom

“for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Germany

“for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh

Denmark

“for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

1919

Jules Bordet

Belgium

“for his discoveries relating to immunity”

1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.

1917

1916

1915

1914

Robert Bárány

Austria

“for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

1913

Charles Robert Richet

France

“in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

1912

Alexis Carrel

France

“in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

1911

Allvar Gullstrand

Sweden

“for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

1910

Albrecht Kossel

Germany

“in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

1909

Emil Theodor Kocher

Switzerland

“for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

1908

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov

Russia

“in recognition of their work on immunity”

Paul Ehrlich

Germany

1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

France

“in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

1906

Camillo Golgi

Italy

“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Spain

1905

Robert Koch

Germany

“for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Russia

“in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen

Denmark (Faroe Islands)

“in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

1902

Ronald Ross

United Kingdom

“for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

1901

Emil Adolf von Behring

Germany

“for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

 

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